3 Summary of significant accounting policies
The most significant accounting policies used in the preparation of the Consolidated Financial Statements are described below.
Cash and cash equivalents include cash on hand, demand deposits, as well as financial assets originally due within 90 days, readily convertible to known amount of cash and subject to an insignificant risk of changes in value.
Available-for-sale financial assets include financial assets other than derivative financial instruments, loans and receivables, held for trading financial assets and held-to-maturity financial assets.
Held for trading financial assets and available-for-sale financial assets are measured at fair value with gains or losses recognized in the profit and loss account under “Finance income (expense)” and to the equity reserve6 related to other comprehensive income, respectively. Changes in fair value of available-for-sale financial assets recognized in equity are charged to the profit and loss account when the assets are derecognized or impaired. The objective evidence that an impairment loss has occurred is verified considering, interalia, significant breaches of contracts, serious financial difficulties or the risk of bankruptcy and other financial reorganization of the counterparty; impairment losses of available-for-sale financial assets are included in the carrying amount. Interest and dividends on financial assets measured at fair value are accounted for on an accrual basis in “Finance income (expense)7” and “Other gain (loss) from investments”, respectively.
When the purchase or sale of a financial asset is under a contract whose terms require delivery of the asset within the time frame established generally by regulation or convention in the market place concerned, the transaction is accounted for on the settlement date.
Receivables are measured at amortized cost (see item “Non-current financial assets” below). Transferred financial assets are derecognized when the contractual rights to receive the cash flows of the financial assets are transferred together with the risks and rewards of the ownership. Inventories, including compulsory stocks and excluding construction contracts, are stated at the lower of purchase or production cost and net realizable value. Net realizable value is the net amount expected to be realized from the sale of inventories in the normal course of business, or, with reference to inventories of crude oil and petroleum products already included in binding sale contracts, the contractual sale price. Inventories which are principally acquired with the purpose of selling in the near future and generating a profit from fluctuations in price are measured at fair value less costs to sell. The cost for inventories of hydrocarbons (crude oil, condensates and natural gas) and petroleum products is determined by applying the weighted-average cost method on a three-month basis, or monthly, when it is justified by the use and the turnover of inventories of crude oil and petroleum products; the cost for inventories of the Versalis segment is determined by applying the weighted average cost on an annual basis.
Construction contracts are measured using the cost-to-cost method, whereby contract revenue is recognized by reference to the stage of completion of the contract matching it with the contract costs incurred in reaching that stage of completion. Advances are deducted from inventories within the limits of accrued contractual considerations; any excess of such advances over the value of the inventories is recorded as a liability. Losses related to construction contracts are recognized immediately as an expense when it is probable that total contract costs will exceed total contract revenues.
Construction contract not yet invoiced, whose payment will be made in a foreign currency, is translated into euro using the rates of exchange ruling at the balance sheet date and the effect of rate changes is reflected in the profit and loss account.
When take-or-pay clauses are included in long-term natural gas purchase contracts, uncollected gas volumes which imply the “pay” clause, measured using the price formulas contractually defined, are recognized under “Other assets” as “Deferred costs” as a contra to “Other payables” or, after the settlement, to “Cash and Cash equivalents”.
The allocated deferred costs are charged to the profit and loss account: (i) when natural gas is actually delivered, the related cost is included in the determination of the weighted-average cost of inventories; and (ii) for the portion which is not recoverable, when it is not possible to collect gas that was previously uncollected within the contractually defined deadlines. Furthermore, the allocated deferred costs are tested for economic recoverability by comparing the related carrying amount and their net realizable value, determined adopting the same criteria described for inventories. Hedging instruments are described in the item “Derivatives”.
Property, plant and equipment8
Tangible assets, including investment properties, are recognized using the cost model and stated at their purchase or construction cost including any costs directly attributable to bringing the asset into operation. In addition, when a substantial period of time is required to make the asset ready for use, the purchase price or construction cost includes the borrowing costs incurred that could have otherwise been avoided if the expenditure had not been made. In the case of a present obligation for the dismantling and removal of assets and the restoration of sites, the carrying value includes, with a corresponding entry to a specific provision, the estimated (discounted) costs to be incurred at the moment the asset is retired. Changes in estimate of the carrying amounts of provisions due to the passage of time and changes in discount rates are recognized under “Provisions for contingencies9”. Property, plant and equipment are not revalued for financial reporting purposes. Assets carried under financial leasing or concerning arrangements that do not take the legal form of a finance lease but substantially transfer all the risks and rewards of ownership of the leased asset are recognized at fair value, net of grants attributable to the lessee or, if lower, at the present value of the minimum lease payments. Leased assets are included within property, plant and equipment. A corresponding financial debt payable to the lessor is recognized as a financial liability. These assets are depreciated using the criteria described below. When the renewal is not reasonably certain, leased assets are depreciated over the shorter of the lease term or the estimated useful life of the asset. Expenditures on renewals, improvements and transformations which provide additional economic benefits are recognized as items of property, plant and equipment when it is probable that they will increase the expected future economic benefits of the asset. Tangible assets, from the moment they begin or should begin to be used, are depreciated systematically using a straight-line method over their useful life which is an estimate of the period over which the assets will be used by the Company. When tangible assets are composed of more than one significant element with different useful lives, each component is depreciated separately. The amount to be depreciated is the book value less the residual value at the end of the useful life, if it is significant and can be reasonably determined. Land is not depreciated, even when purchased with a building. Tangible assets held for sale are not depreciated (see item “Assets held for sale and discontinued operations” below). A change in the depreciation method, deriving from changes in the asset’s useful life, in its residual value or in the pattern of consumption of the economic benefits embodied in the asset, shall be recognized prospectively. Assets that can be used free of charge by third parties are depreciated over the shorter term of the duration of the concession or the asset’s useful life. Replacement costs of identifiable components in complex assets are capitalized and depreciated over their useful life; the residual book value of the component that has been substituted is charged to the profit and loss account. Expenditures for ordinary maintenance and repairs are expensed as incurred. The carrying value of property, plant and equipment is reviewed for impairment whenever events indicate that the carrying amounts for those assets may not be recoverable. The recoverability of an asset is assessed by comparing its carrying value with the recoverable amount, which is the higher of fair value less costs to sell or its value in use. Value in use is the present value of the future cash flows expected to be derived from the use of the asset and, if significant and reasonably determinable, the cash flows deriving from its disposal at the end of its useful life, net of disposal costs. Expected cash flows are determined on the basis of reasonable and supportable assumptions that represent management’s best estimate of the range of economic conditions that will exist over the remaining useful life of the asset, giving greater weight to external evidence. Oil, natural gas and petroleum products prices (and to prices for products which derive there from) used to quantify the expected future cash flows are estimated based on forward prices prevailing in the marketplace for the first four years and management’s long-term planning assumptions thereafter. Discounting is carried out at a rate that reflects a current market valuation of the time value of money and of those specific risks of the asset that are not reflected in the estimate of the future cash flows. In particular, the discount rate used is the Weighted Average Cost of Capital (WACC) adjusted for the specific Country risk of the activity. The evaluation of the specific Country risk to be included in the discount rate is provided by external parties. WACC differs considering the risk associated with each operating segments; in particular for the assets belonging to the Gas & Power and Engineering & Construction segments, taking into account their different risk compared with Eni as a whole, specific WACC rates have been defined (for Gas & Power segment on the basis of a sample of companies operating in the same segment; for Engineering & Construction segment on the basis of the market quotation); WACC used for impairment reviews in the Gas & Power segment is adjusted to take into consideration the risk premium of the specific Country of the activity while WACC used for impairment reviews in the Engineering & Construction segment is not adjusted for Country risk as most of the assets are not located in a specific Country. For the other segments, a single WACC is used considering that the risk is the same to that of Eni as a whole. Value in use is calculated net of the tax effect as this method results in values similar to those resulting from discounting pre-tax cash flows at a pre-tax discount rate deriving, through an iteration process, from a post-tax valuation. Valuation is carried out for each single asset or, if the recoverable amount of a single asset cannot be determined, for the smallest identifiable group of assets that generates independent cash inflows from their continuous use, the so-called “cash generating unit”. When an impairment loss no longer exists, a reversal of the impairment loss is recognized in the profit and loss account. The reversal cannot exceed the carrying amount that would have been determined, net of depreciation, had no impairment loss been recognized for the asset in prior years.
Intangible assets are identifiable assets without physical substance, controlled by the Company and able to produce future economic benefits, and goodwill acquired in business combinations. An asset is classified as intangible when management is able to distinguish it clearly from goodwill. This condition is normally met when: (i) the intangible asset arises from contractual or legal rights; or (ii) the asset is separable, i.e. can be sold, transferred, licensed, rented or exchanged, either individually or together with other assets. An entity controls an asset if it has the power to obtain the future economic benefits flowing from the underlying asset and to restrict the access of others to those benefits. Intangible assets are initially stated at cost as determined by the criteria used for tangible assets and they are not revalued for financial reporting purposes. Intangible assets with a definite useful life are amortized systematically over their useful life estimated as the period over which the assets will be used by the Company; the amount to be amortized and the recoverability of the carrying amount are determined in accordance with the criteria described in the section “Property, plant and equipment”. Goodwill and other intangible assets with an indefinite useful life are not amortized. Their carrying values are reviewed for impairment at least annually and whenever events or changes in circumstances indicate that the carrying value may be impaired. Goodwill is tested for impairment at the lowest level within the entity at which it is monitored for internal management purposes. When the carrying amount of the cash generating unit, including goodwill allocated thereto, calculated considering any impairment loss of the non-current assets belonging to the cash generating unit, exceeds its recoverable amount10, the excess is recognized as an impairment loss. The impairment loss is first allocated to reduce the carrying amount of goodwill; any remaining excess to be allocated to the assets of the unit is applied pro-rata on the basis of the carrying amount of each asset in the unit. Impairment charges against goodwill are not reversed11. Costs of technological development activities are capitalized when: (i) the cost attributable to the development activity can be reliably determined; (ii) there is the intention, availability of financial and technical resources to make the asset available for use or sale; and (iii) it can be demonstrated that the asset is able to generate future economic benefits. Intangible assets also include public to private service concession arrangements concerning the development, financing, operation and maintenance of infrastructures under concession, in which the grantor: (i) controls or regulates what services the operator must provide with the infrastructure, and at what price; and (ii) controls – by the ownership, beneficial entitlement or otherwise – any significant residual interest in the infrastructure at the end of the concession arrangement. According to the agreements, the operator has the right to operate the infrastructure, controlled by the grantor, in order to provide the public service12.
Exploration and production activities13
Acquisition of mineral rights
Costs associated with the acquisition of mineral rights are capitalized in connection with the assets acquired (such as exploratory potential, probable and possible reserves and proved reserves). When the acquisition is related to a set of exploratory potential and reserves, the cost is allocated to the different assets acquired on the basis of the value of the expected discounted cash flows. Expenditure for the exploratory potential, represented by the costs for the acquisition of the exploration permits and for the extension of existing permits, is recognized under “Intangible assets” and is amortized on a straight-line basis over the period of the exploration as contractually established. If the exploration is abandoned, the residual expenditure is charged to the profit and loss account. Acquisition costs for proved reserves and for possible and probable reserves are recognized in the balance sheet as assets. Costs associated with proved reserves are amortized on a UOP basis, as detailed in the section “Development”, considering both developed and undeveloped reserves. Expenditures associated with possible and probable reserves are not amortized until classified as proved reserves; in case of a negative result, the costs are charged to the profit and loss account.
Costs associated with exploratory activities for oil and gas producing properties incurred both before and after the acquisition of mineral rights (such as acquisition of seismic data from third parties, test wells and geophysical surveys) are initially capitalized in order to reflect their nature as an investment and subsequently amortized in full when incurred.
Development expenditures are those costs incurred to obtain access to proved reserves and to provide facilities for extracting, gathering and storing oil and gas. They are then capitalized within property, plant and equipment and amortized generally on a UOP basis, as their useful life is closely related to the availability of economically producible reserves. This method provides for residual costs at the end of each quarter to be amortized at a rate representing the ratio between the volumes extracted during the quarter and the proved developed reserves existing at the end of the quarter, increased by the volumes extracted during the quarter. This method is applied with reference to the smallest aggregate representing a direct correlation between development expenditures and proved developed reserves. Costs related to unsuccessful development wells or damaged wells are expensed immediately as losses on disposal. Development costs are tested for impairment in accordance with the criteria described in the section “Property, plant and equipment”.
Production costs are those costs incurred to operate and maintain wells and field equipment and are expensed as incurred.
Production-sharing agreements and buyback contracts
Oil and gas reserves related to production-sharing agreements and buyback contracts are determined on the basis of contractual clauses related to the repayment of costs incurred for the exploration, development and production activities executed through the use of Company’s technologies and financing (Cost Oil) and the Company’s share of production volumes not destined to cost recovery (Profit Oil). Revenues from the sale of the production entitlements against both Cost Oil and Profit Oil are accounted for on an accrual basis whilst exploration, development and production costs are accounted for according to the policies mentioned above. The Company’s share of production volumes and reserves representing the Profit Oil includes the share of hydrocarbons which corresponds to the taxes to be paid, according to the contractual agreement, by the national government on behalf of the Company. As a consequence, the Company has to recognize at the same time an increase in the taxable profit, through the increase of the revenues, and a tax expense.
Costs expected to be incurred with respect to the retirement of a well, including costs associated with removal of production facilities, dismantlement and site restoration, are capitalized, consistently with the policy described under “Property, plant and equipment”, and then amortized on a UOP basis.
Grants related to assets are recognized as a reduction of purchase price or production cost of the related assets when there is reasonable assurance that the conditions attaching to them, agreed upon with the grantor government, have been fulfilled. Grants not related to capital expenditure are recognized in the profit and loss account on an accrual basis matching the related costs when incurred.
Non-current financial assets
Investments in subsidiaries excluded from consolidation, jointly controlled entities and associates are accounted for using the equity method14. Jointly controlled entities are those entities over which Eni governs, jointly with other venturers, the financial and operating decisions relating to the activity so as to obtain benefits from it. Associates are entities over which Eni has significant influence, that is the power to participate in the financial and operating policy decisions of the investee, but is not control or joint control over those policies. Under the equity method, investments are initially recognized at cost, allocating any difference between the cost of the investment and the investor’s share of the net fair value of the investee’s identifiable net assets analogously to the recognition principles of business combination. Subsequently the carrying amount is adjusted to reflect: (i) the investor’s share of the post-acquisition profit or loss of the investee; and (ii) the investor’s share of the investee’s other comprehensive income. The changes in the equity of investees accounted for using the equity method, not arising from the profit or loss or from the other comprehensive income, are recognized in the investor’s profit and loss account, as they represent, basically, a gain or loss from a disposal of an interest of the investee’s equity. Distributions received from an investee are recorded as a reduction of the carrying amount of the investment. In applying the equity method, consolidations adjustments are considered (see also “Principles of consolidation” paragraph). When there is objective evidence of impairment (see also section “Current assets”), the recoverability is tested by comparing the carrying amount and the related recoverable amount determined by adopting the criteria indicated in the item “Property, plant and equipment”. Subsidiaries excluded from consolidation, jointly controlled entities and associates are accounted for at cost, net of impairment losses if this does not result in a misrepresentation of the Company’s financial condition. When an impairment loss no longer exists, a reversal of the impairment loss is recognized in profit and loss account within “Other gain (loss) from investments”. The reversal cannot exceed the previously recognized impairment losses.
The sale of equity interests with loss of joint control and significant influence over the investee determines the recognition in the profit and loss account of: (i) any gain/loss calculated as the difference between the consideration received and the corresponding transferred share; (ii) any gain or loss recognized as a result of remeasuring to fair value any investment retained in the former joint venture/associate; (iii) any amount related to the former joint venture/associate previously recognized in other comprehensive income which can be reclassified subsequently to profit and loss account15. Any investment retained in the former joint venture/associate is recognized at its fair value at the date when joint control or significant influence are lost and shall be accounted for in accordance with the applicable measurement criteria. Other investments, included in non-current assets, are recognized at their fair value and their effects are included in the equity reserve related to other comprehensive income; the changes in fair value recognized in equity are charged to the profit and loss account when it is impaired or realized. Galp and Snam shares related to convertible bonds are measured at fair value through profit and loss account, under the fair value option, in order to significantly reduce the accounting mismatch with the recognition of the option embedded in the convertible bond, measured at fair value through profit and loss account. When investments are not traded in a public market and their fair value cannot be reasonably determined, they are accounted for at cost, net of impairment losses; impairment losses shall not be reversed16. The investor’s share of losses of an investee, that exceeds its interest in the investee, is recognized in a specific provision only to the extent the investor is required to fulfil legal or constructive obligations of the investee or to cover its losses.
Receivables and financial assets to be held to maturity
Receivables and financial assets to be held to maturity are stated at cost represented by the fair value of the initial exchanged amount adjusted to take into account direct external costs related to the transaction (e.g. fees of agents or consultants, etc.). The initial carrying value is then adjusted to take into account principal repayments, reductions for impairment or uncollectibility and amortization of any difference between the maturity amount and the initial amount. Amortization is carried out on the basis of the effective interest rate represented by the rate that equalizes, at the moment of the initial recognition, the present value of expected cash flows to the initial carrying amount (so called “amortized cost method”). Receivables for finance leases are recognized at an amount equal to the present value of the lease payments and the purchase option price or any residual value; the amount is discounted at the interest rate implicit in the lease. If there is objective evidence that an impairment loss has been incurred (see also point “Current assets”), the impairment loss is measured by comparing the carrying value with the present value of the expected cash flows discounted at the effective interest rate as defined at initial recognition, or at the moment of its updating to reflect re-pricings contractually established. Receivables and financial assets to be held to maturity are presented net of the allowance for impairment losses; when the impairment loss is definite the allowance for impairment losses is reversed for charges, otherwise for excess. Changes to the carrying amount of receivables or financial assets in accordance with the amortized cost method are recognized as “Finance income (expense)”.
Assets held for sale and discontinued operations
Non-current assets and current and non-current assets included within disposal groups, are classified as held for sale if their carrying amount will be recovered principally through a sale transaction rather than through their continuing use. For this to be the case, the sale must be highly probable and the asset or the disposal group must be available for immediate sale in its present condition. Non-current assets held for sale, current and non-current assets included within disposal groups that have been classified as held for sale and the liabilities directly associated with them are recognized in the balance sheet separately from the entity’s other assets and liabilities. Non-current assets held for sale are not depreciated and they are measured at the lower of the fair value less costs to sell and their carrying amount. The classification as held for sale of equity-accounted investments determines the interruption of equity method accounting; therefore, in this case, the book value of the investment in accordance with the equity method represents the carrying amount for the measurement as non-current assets held-for sale. Any difference between the carrying amount and the fair value less costs to sell is taken to the profit and loss account as an impairment loss; any subsequent reversal is recognized up to the cumulative impairment losses, including those recognized prior to qualification of the asset as held for sale. Non-current assets and current and non-current assets included within disposal groups, classified as held for sale, are considered a discontinued operation if, alternatively: (i) represent a separate major line of business or geographical area of operations; (ii) are part of a disposal program of a separate major line of business or geographical area of operations; or (iii) are a subsidiary acquired exclusively with a view to resale. The results of discontinued operations, as well as any gain or loss recognized on the disposal, are indicated in a separate profit and loss account item, net of the related tax effects; the economic figures of discontinued operations are indicated also for prior periods presented in the financial statements. When there is a sale plan involving loss of control of a subsidiary, all the assets and liabilities of that subsidiary are classified as held for sale, regardless of whether a non-controlling interest in its former subsidiary will be retain after the sale.
Debt is measured at amortized cost (see item “Non-current financial assets” above). Financial liabilities are derecognized when they are extinguished, or when the obligation specified in the contract is discharged or cancelled or expires.
Provisions for contingencies
Provisions for contingencies are liabilities for expenses and charges of a definite nature and whose existence is certain or probable but for which at year-end the timing or amount of future expenditure is uncertain. Provisions are recognized when: (i) there is a present obligation, legal or constructive, as a result of a past event; (ii) it is probable that the settlement of that obligation will result in an outflow of resources embodying economic benefits; and (iii) the amount of the obligation can be reliably estimated. The amount recognized as a provision is the best estimate of the expenditure required to settle the present obligation at the balance sheet date or to transfer it to third parties at that time. The amount recognized for onerous contracts is the lower of the cost necessary to fulfill the obligations, net of expected economic benefits deriving from the contracts, and any indemnity or penalty arising from failure to fulfill these obligations. If the effect of the time value is material, and the payment date of the obligations can be reasonably estimated, provisions to be accrued are the present value of the expenditures expected to be required to settle the obligation at a discount rate that reflects the Company’s average borrowing rate taking into account the risks associated with the obligation.
The increase in the provision due to the passage of time is recognized as “Finance income (expense)”. When the liability regards a tangible asset (e.g. site dismantling and restoration), the provision is stated with a corresponding entry to the asset to which it refers. Charges to the profit and loss account are made with the amortization process. Costs that the Company expects to bear in order to carry out restructuring plans are recognized when the Company has a detailed formal plan for the restructuring and has raised a valid expectation in the affected parties that it will carry out the restructuring. Provisions are periodically reviewed and adjusted to reflect changes in the estimates of costs, timing and discount rates. Changes in provisions are recognized in the same profit and loss account item that had previously held the provision, or, when the liability regards tangible assets (i.e. site dismantling and restoration), changes in the provision are recognized with a corresponding entry to the assets to which they refer, to the extent of the assets’ carrying amounts; any excess amount is recognized to the profit and loss account. In Note 28 – Provisions for contingencies, the following contingent liabilities are described: (i) possible, but not probable obligations arising from past events, whose existence will be confirmed only by the occurrence or non-occurrence of one or more uncertain future events not wholly within the Company’s control; and (ii) present obligations arising from past events whose amount cannot be reliably measured or whose settlement will probably not result in an outflow of resources embodying economic benefits.
Provisions for employee benefits
Post-employment benefit plans, including informal arrangements, are classified as either defined contribution plans or defined benefit plans depending on the economic substance of the plan as derived from its principal terms and conditions. In the first case, the Company’s obligation, which consists of making payments to the State or a trust or a fund, is determined on the basis of contributions due. The liabilities related to defined benefit plans, net of any plan assets, are determined on the basis of actuarial assumptions and charged on an accrual basis during the employment period required to obtain the benefits. Net interest includes the return on plan assets and the interests cost to be recognized in the profit and loss account. Net interest is measured by applying to the liability, net of any plan assets, the discount rate used to calculate the present value of the liability; net interest of defined benefit plans is recognized in “Finance income (expense)”. Remeasurements of the net defined benefit liability, comprising actuarial gains and losses, resulting from changes in the actuarial assumptions used or from changes arising from experience adjustments, and the return on plan assets excluding amounts included in net interest, are recognized within statement of comprehensive income. Furthermore, in presence of net assets, changes in their value different from those included in net interest are recognized within statement of comprehensive income. Obligations for long-term benefits are determined by adopting actuarial assumptions. The effects of remeasurements are taken to profit and loss account in their entirety.
Treasury shares are recognized as deductions from equity at cost.
Gains or losses resulting from subsequent sales are recognized in equity.
Revenues and costs
Revenues associated with sales of products and services are recognized when significant risks and rewards of ownership have passed to the customer or when the transaction can be considered settled and the associated revenue can be reliably measured. In particular, revenues are recognized for the sale of:
- crude oil, generally upon shipment;
- natural gas, upon delivery to the customer;
- petroleum products sold to retail distribution networks, generally upon delivery to the service stations, whereas all other sales of petroleum products are generally recognized upon shipment;
- chemical products and other products, generally upon shipment.
Revenues are recognized upon shipment when, at that date, significant risks are transferred to the buyer. Revenues from crude oil and natural gas production from properties in which Eni has an interest together with other producers are recognized on the basis of Eni’s net working interest in those properties (entitlement method). Differences between Eni’s net working interest volume and actual production volumes are recognized at current prices at year end. Revenues related to partially rendered services are recognized by reference to the stage of completion, provided that: (i) the amount of revenues can be measured reliably; (ii) it is probable that the economic benefits associated with the transaction will flow to the entity; (iii) the stage of completion of the transaction at the end of the reporting period can be measured reliably; and (iv) the related costs can be measured reliably. When the outcome of the transaction involving the rendering of services cannot be estimated reliably, revenue is recognized only to the extent of the expenses recognized that are recoverable. Revenues accrued during the year related to construction contracts are recognized on the basis of contractual revenues with reference to the stage of completion of a contract measured on the cost-to-cost basis. For service concession arrangements (see item “Intangible assets” above) in which customers fees do not provide a reliable distinction between the compensation for construction/update of the infrastructure and the compensation for operating it and in the absence of external benchmarks, revenues recognized during the construction/update phase are limited to the amount of the costs incurred. Additional revenues, derived from a change in the scope of work, are included in the total amount of revenues when it is probable that the customer will approve the variation and the related amount. Claims deriving from additional costs incurred for reasons attributable to the customer are included in the total amount of revenues when it is probable that the counterparty will accept them. Tangible assets, different from an infrastructure used in service concession arrangements, transferred from customers (or constructed using cash transferred from customers) and used to connect them to a network to supply goods and services, are recognized at their fair value as an offset to revenues. When more than one separately identifiable service is provided (for example, connection to a network and supply of goods) the entity shall assess for which one service it receives the transferred asset from the customer and it shall consistently recognize a revenue when the connection is delivered or over the lesser period between the length of the supply and the useful life of the transferred asset. Revenues are measured at the fair value of the consideration received or receivable net of returns, discounts, rebates, bonuses and related taxation. Award credits, related to customer loyalty programs, are recognized as a separate component of the sales transaction which grants the right to customers. Therefore, the portion of revenues related to the fair value of award credits granted is recognized as an offset to the item “Other liabilities”. The liability is charged to the profit and loss account in the period in which the award credits are redeemed by customers or the related right is lost. The exchange of goods and services of a similar nature and value do not give rise to revenues and costs as they do not represent sale transactions. Costs are recognized when the related goods and services are sold or consumed during the year, they are systematically allocated or when their future economic benefits cannot be identified. Costs associated with emission quotas, determined on the basis of the market prices, are recognized in relation to the amount of the carbon dioxide emissions that exceed free allowances. Costs related to the purchase of the emission rights are recognized as intangible assets net of any negative difference between the amount of emissions and the free allowances. Revenues related to emission quotas are recognized when they are sold. In case of sale, if applicable, the acquired emission rights are considered as the first to be sold. Monetary receivables granted as a substitution of emission rights awarded free of charge are recognized as a contra to item “Other income and revenues” of the profit and loss account. Operating lease payments are recognized in the profit and loss account over the length of the contract. Payroll costs include stock options granted to managers, consistent with their actual remunerative nature. The instruments granted are recorded at fair value on the vesting date and are not subject to subsequent adjustments; the current portion is calculated pro-rata over the vesting period17. The fair value of stock options is determined using valuation techniques which consider conditions related to the exercise of options, current share prices, expected volatility and the risk-free interest rate. The fair value of stock options is recognized as a contra to the equity item “Other reserves”. The costs for the acquisition of new knowledge or discoveries, the study of products or alternative processes, new techniques or models, the planning and construction of prototypes or, in any case, costs incurred for other scientific research activities or technological development, which cannot be capitalized (see item “Intangible assets” above), are included in the profit and loss account when they are incurred.
Exchange rate differences
Revenues and costs associated with transactions in currencies other than the functional currency are translated into the functional currency by applying the exchange rate at the date of the transaction. Monetary assets and liabilities denominated in currencies other than functional currency are converted by applying the year end exchange rate and the effect is stated in the profit and loss account. Non-monetary assets and liabilities denominated in currencies other than the functional currency valued at cost are translated at the initial exchange rate. Non-monetary items that are measured at fair value, recoverable amount or net realisable value are translated using the exchange rate at the date when the value is determined.
Dividends are recognized at the date of the general shareholders’ meeting in which they were declared, except when the sale of shares before the ex-dividend date is certain.
Current income taxes are determined on the basis of estimated taxable income. The estimated liability is included in “Income taxes payable”. Current income tax assets and liabilities are measured at the amount expected to be paid to (recovered from) the tax Authorities, using tax rates and the tax laws that have been enacted or substantively enacted by the end of the reporting period. Deferred tax assets or liabilities are recognized for temporary differences arising between the carrying amounts of the assets and liabilities and their tax bases, based on tax rates and tax laws that have been enacted or substantively enacted for future years. Deferred tax assets are recognized when their recoverability is considered probable; in particular, deferred tax assets are recoverable when it is probable that taxable income will be available in the same year as the reversal of the deductible temporary difference. Similarly, deferred tax assets for the carryforward of unused tax credits and unused tax losses are recognized to the extent that the recoverability is probable. Relating to the temporary differences associated with investments in subsidiaries, jointly controlled entities and associates, the related deferred tax liabilities are not recognized if the investor is able to control the timing of reversal of the temporary differences and it is probable that the temporary difference will not reverse in the foreseeable future. Deferred tax assets and liabilities are included in non-current assets and liabilities and are offset at a single entity level if related to offsettable taxes. The balance of the offset, if positive, is recognized in the item “Deferred tax assets”; if negative, in the item “Deferred tax liabilities”. When the results of transactions are recognized directly in shareholders’ equity, the related current and deferred taxes are also charged to the shareholders’ equity.
Derivatives, including embedded derivatives which are separated from the host contract, are assets and liabilities measured at their fair value. Derivatives are designated as hedging instruments when the relationship between the derivative and the hedged item is formally documented and the hedge is highly effective and regularly reviewed. When hedging instruments hedge the risk of changes of the fair value of the hedged item (fair value hedge, e.g. hedging of the variability on the fair value of fixed interest rate assets/liabilities), the derivatives are measured at fair value through profit and loss account. Hedged items are consistently adjusted to reflect, in the profit and loss account, the changes of fair value associated with the hedged risk; this applies even if the hedged item should be otherwise measured. When derivatives hedge the cash flow variability risk of the hedged item (cash flow hedge, e.g. hedging the variability on the cash flows of assets/liabilities as a result of the fluctuations of exchange rate), the changes in the fair value of the derivatives, considered an effective hedge, are initially recognized in the equity reserve related to other comprehensive income and then reclassifies to profit and loss account in the same period during which the hedged transaction affects the profit and loss account.
The changes in the fair value of derivatives that do not meet the conditions required to qualify for hedge accounting are recognized in the profit and loss account. In particular, the changes in the fair value of non-hedging derivatives on interest rates and exchange rates are recognized in the profit and loss account item “Finance income (expense)”; conversely, the changes in the fair value of non-hedging derivatives on commodities are recognized in the profit and loss account item “Other operating (expense) income”. Economic effects of transactions to buy or sell commodities entered into to meet the entity’s normal operating requirements and for which the settlement is provided with the delivery of the underlying, are recognized on an accrual basis (the so-called normal sale and normal purchase exemption or own use exemption).
Fair value measurements
Fair value is the price that would be received to sell an asset or paid to transfer a liability in an orderly transaction between market participants (not in a forced liquidation or a distress sale) at the measurement date (exit price). Fair value measurement is based on the market conditions existing at the measurement date and on the assumptions of market participants (market-based measurement). A fair value measurement assumes that the transaction to sell the asset or transfer the liability takes place in the principal market for the asset or liability, or in the absence of a principal market, in the most advantageous market to which the entity has access, independently from the entity’s intention to sell the asset or transfer the liability to be measured.
A fair value measurement of a non-financial asset takes into account a market participant’s ability to generate economic benefits by using the asset in its highest and best use or by selling it to another market participant that would use the asset in its highest and best use. Highest and best use is determined from the perspective of market participants, even if the entity intends a different use; an entity’s current use of a non-financial asset is presumed to be its highest and best use, unless market or other factors suggest that a different use by market participants would maximize the value of the asset.
The fair value of a liability, both financial and non-financial, or of an equity instrument, in the absence of a quoted price, is measured from the perspective of a market participant that holds the identical item as an asset at the measurement date. The fair value of a liability reflects the effect of a non-performance risk. Non-performance risk includes, but may not be limited to, an entity’s own credit risk.
In the absence of available market quotation, fair value is measured by using valuation techniques that are appropriate in the circumstances, maximizing the use of relevant observable inputs and minimizing the use of unobservable inputs.
(6) Changes in the carrying amount of available-for-sale financial assets relating to changes in a foreign exchange rates are recognized in the profit and loss account.
(7) Interests accrued on financial assets held for trading impact the total fair value measurement of the instrument and are recognized, within the item “Finance income (expense)”, in the sub-item “Net finance income on financial assets held for trading”. Conversely, interests accrued on financial assets available-for-sale are recognised, within the item “Finance income (expense)”, in the sub-item “Finance income”.
(8) Recognition and evaluation criteria of exploration and production activities are described in the section “Exploration and production activities” below.
(9) The Company recognizes material provisions for the retirement of assets in the Exploration & Production segment. No significant asset retirement obligations associated with any legal obligations to retire refining, marketing and transportation (downstream) and chemical long-lived assets are generally recognized, as undetermined settlement dates for asset retirements do not allow a reasonable estimate of the fair value of the associated retirement obligation. The Company performs periodic reviews of its downstream and chemical long-lived assets for any changes in facts and circumstances that might require recognition of a retirement obligation.
(10) For the definition of recoverable amount see item “Property, plant and equipment”.
(11) Impairment charges recognized in an interim period are not reversed also when, considering conditions existing in a subsequent interim period, they would have been recognized in a smaller amount or would not have been recognized.
(12) When the operator has an unconditional contractual right to receive cash or another financial asset from or at the direction of the grantor, considerations received or receivable by the operator for construction or upgrade of infrastructure are recognized as a financial asset.
(13) IFRS does not have specific criteria for hydrocarbon exploration and production activities. Eni continues to use existing accounting policies for exploration and evaluation of assets previously applied before the introduction of IFRS 6 “Exploration for and evaluation of mineral resources”.
(14) In the case of step acquisition of a significant influence (or joint control), the investment is recognized, at the acquisition date of significant influence (joint control), at the amount deriving from the use of the equity method assuming the adoption of this method since initial acquisition; the “step-up” of the carrying amount of interests owned before the acquisition of significant influence (joint control) is taken to equity.
(15) Conversely, any component related to the former joint venture/associate previously recognized in other comprehensive income, which can not be reclassified subsequently to profit and loss account, are reclassified within retained earnings.
(16) Impairment charges recognized in an interim period are not reversed also when, considering conditions existing in a subsequent interim period, they would have been recognized in a smaller amount or would not have been recognized.
(17) Conversely, any component related to the former joint venture/associate previously recognized in other comprehensive income, which can not be reclassified subsequently to profit and loss account, are reclassified within retained earnings.