6 Recent accounting standards
Accounting standards and interpretations issued by the IASB/IFRIC and endorsed by the EU
By Commission Regulation (EU) No. 1254/2012 of December 11, 2012, IFRS 10 “Consolidated Financial Statements” (hereinafter “IFRS 10”) and the revised IAS 27 “Separate Financial Statements” (hereinafter “revised IAS 27”) have been endorsed. The documents state, respectively, the provisions for the presentation and the preparation of consolidated and separate financial statements. IFRS 10 provides, interalia, a new definition of control to be consistently applied to all entities (included vehicles). According to this definition, an entity controls an investee when it is exposed, or has rights, to its (positive and negative) returns from its involvement and has the ability to affect those returns through its power over the investee. The standard provides some indicators to be considered in assessing control which include, interalia, potential voting rights, protective rights, the presence of agency relationships and franchise agreements. Furthermore, the new provisions acknowledge the existence of control of an investee even if the investor holds less than majority of voting rights due to shareholding dispersion or passive attitude of other shareholders. IFRS 10 and the revised IAS 27 shall be applied for annual periods beginning on or after January 1, 2014.
By Commission Regulation (EU) No. 1254/2012 of December 11, 2012, IFRS 11 “Joint Arrangements” (hereinafter “IFRS 11”) and the revised IAS 28 “Investments in Associates and Joint Ventures” (hereinafter “revised IAS 28”) have been endorsed. Depending on the rights and obligations of the parties arising from arrangements, IFRS 11 classifies joint arrangements into two types – joint operations and joint ventures – and states the required accounting treatment. With reference to joint ventures, the new provisions require to account for them using the equity method, eliminating proportionate consolidation. A joint operator accounts for assets/liabilities and expenses/revenues relating to the joint operation on the basis of its rights and obligations determined and specified in the contractual arrangements, rather than basing on its ownership interest in the joint operation. The revised IAS 28 defines, interalia, the accounting treatment to be adopted on disposal of an equity interest, or a portion of an equity interest, in a joint venture or an associate. IFRS 11 and the revised IAS 28 shall be applied for annual periods beginning on or after January 1, 2014.
By Commission Regulation (EU) No. 1254/2012 of December 11, 2012, IFRS 12 “Disclosure of Interests in Other Entities” (hereinafter “IFRS 12”) has been endorsed. The standard combines all the disclosures to be provided in financial statements regarding subsidiaries, joint arrangements, associates and unconsolidated structured entities. IFRS 12 shall be applied for annual periods beginning on or after January 1, 2014.
By Commission Regulation (EU) No. 313/2013 of April 4, 2013, the document “Consolidated Financial Statements, Joint Arrangements and Disclosure of Interests in Other Entities: Transition Guidance (Amendments to International Financial Reporting Standards 10, 11, and 12)” has been endorsed. It provides some clarifications and relieves on the transition requirements of IFRS 10, IFRS 11 and IFRS 12.
The provisions shall be applied for annual periods beginning on or after January 1, 201420.
By Commission Regulation (EU) No. 1256/2012 of December 13, 2012, the amendments to IAS 32 “Financial Instruments: Presentation – Offsetting Financial Assets and Financial Liabilities” (hereinafter “amendments to IAS 32”) have been endorsed, which state that: (i) in order to set off financial assets and liabilities, the right of set-off must be legally enforceable in all circumstances, such as in the normal course of business, in the event of default or in the event of insolvency or bankruptcy, of one or all of the counterparties; and (ii) in presence of specific characteristics, the gross simultaneous settlement of financial assets and liabilities, that eliminate or result in insignificant credit and liquidity risk, may be considered equivalent to net settlement.
The amendments to IAS 32 shall be applied for annual periods beginning on or after January 1, 2014.
By Commission Regulation (EU) No. 1374/2013 of December 19, 2013, the amendments to IAS 36 “Recoverable Amount Disclosures for Non-Financial Assets” have been endorsed (hereinafter “amendments to IAS 36”), which supplements the disclosure of information requiring: (i) the recoverable amount of individual assets or cash-generating units for which an impairment loss has been recognized or reversed during the period; and (ii) additional disclosures if recoverable amount is based on fair value less costs of disposal. The amendments to IAS 36 shall be applied for annual periods beginning on or after January 1, 2014.
By Commission Regulation (EU) No. 1375/2013 of December 19, 2013, the amendments to IAS 39 “Financial Instruments: Recognition and Measurement – Novation of Derivatives and Continuation of Hedge Accounting” have been endorsed (hereinafter “amendments to IAS 39”). According to these amendments, an entity shall not discontinue hedge accounting in case of novation of the derivative, as a consequence of laws or regulations, which implies that an original counterparty is replaced by a central counterparty. The amendments to IAS 39 shall be applied for annual periods beginning on or after January 1, 2014.
Accounting standards and interpretations issued by the IASB/IFRIC and not yet endorsed by the EU
On November 12, 2009, the IASB issued IFRS 9 “Financial Instruments” (hereinafter “IFRS 9”) which changes recognition and measurement criteria of financial assets and their classification in the financial statements. In particular, the new provisions require, interalia, a classification and measurement model of financial assets based exclusively on the following categories: (i) financial assets measured at amortized cost; and (ii) financial assets measured at fair value.
The new provisions also require that investments in equity instruments, other than subsidiaries, joint ventures or associates, shall be measured at fair value with effects taken to the profit and loss account. If these investments are not held for trading purposes, subsequent changes in the fair value can be recognized in other comprehensive income, even if dividends are taken to the profit and loss account. Amounts taken to other comprehensive income shall not be subsequently transferred to the profit and loss account even at disposal. In addition, on October 28, 2010, the IASB updated IFRS 9 by incorporating the recognition and measurement criteria of financial liabilities. In particular, the new provisions require, interalia, that if a financial liability is measured at fair value through profit or loss, subsequent changes in the fair value attributable to changes in the own credit risk shall be presented in other comprehensive income; the component related to own credit risk is recognized in profit and loss account if the treatment of the changes in own credit risk would create or enlarge an accounting mismatch. On November 19, 2013, the IASB integrated IFRS 9 with the revised guidance for hedge accounting. The new provisions aim to align hedge accounting more closely with risk management activities and to establish a more principles-based approach to hedge accounting.
In particular, the main changes concern: (i) the forward-looking hedge effectiveness assessment rather than bright lines; (ii) the possibility to rebalance the hedging relationship if the risk management objective for that designating hedging relationship remains the same; (iii) the possibility to designate as an hedged item a risk component of a non-financial item, net positions or layer components of items, if specific conditions are met; (iv) the possibility to hedge aggregated exposures, i.e. a combination of a non-derivative exposure and a derivative; and (v) the accounting of time value of purchased options or the forward elements of forward contracts, excluded from the hedge effectiveness assessment, which shall be consistent with the features of the hedged item. Furthermore, in November 2013, the IASB also removed the effective date from IFRS 9 and will decide on the effective date when the entire IFRS 9 project is closer to completion (the previous effective date was January 1, 2015).
On May 20, 2013, the IFRIC issued the interpretation IFRIC 21 “Levies” (hereinafter “IFRIC 21”), which defines the accounting for outflows imposed by governments (e.g. contributions required to operate in a specific market), other than income taxes, fines or penalties. IFRIC 21 sets out criteria for the recognition of the liability, stating that the obligating event that gives rise to the liability, and therefore to its recognition, is the activity that triggers the payment, as identified by the legislation. The provisions of IFRIC 21 shall be applied for annual periods beginning on or after January 1, 2014.
On November 21, 2013, the IASB issued the amendments to IAS 19 “Defined Benefit Plans: Employee Contributions”, which allow the recognition of contributions to defined benefit plans from employees or third parties as a reduction of service cost in the period in which the related service is received, provided that the contributions: (i) are set out in the formal conditions of the plan; (ii) are linked to service; and (iii) are independent of number of years of service (e.g. the contributions are a fixed percentage of the employee’s salary or a fixed amount throughout the service period or dependent on the employee’s age). The amendments shall be applied for annual periods beginning on or after July 1, 2014 (for Eni: 2015 financial statements).
On December 12, 2013 the IASB issued the documents “Annual Improvements to IFRSs 2010-2012 Cycle” and “Annual Improvements to IFRSs 2011-2013 Cycle”, which include, basically, technical and editorial changes to existing standards. The amendments to the standards shall be applied for annual periods beginning on or after July 1, 2014 (for Eni: 2015 financial statements).
Eni is currently reviewing these new IFRS to determine the likely impact on the Group’s results.
(20) Under the transition requirements of IFRS 10 and IFRS 11, the new provisions shall be applied in the consolidated financial statements retrospectively starting from January 1, 2014, by adjusting the opening balance sheet as of January 1, 2013 and the 2013 profit and loss account. The application of the new provisions in the consolidated financial statements leads: (i) as of January 1, 2013, an increase in total assets of €313 million, an increase in total liabilities of €454 million and a decrease in non-controlling interests of €141 million; (ii) in the 2013 profit and loss account, an increase in total revenues of €23 million, an increase in operating profit of €32 million and a decrease in net profit attributable to non-controlling interests of €13 million; (iii) as of December 31, 2013, an increase in total assets of €253 million, an increase in total liabilities of €378 million and a decrease in non-controlling interests of €125 million.